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Artificial Intelligence Around Us
During the 1980s in America there was a lot of interest in the field of artificial intelligence. The high expectations of the 1980s were followed by the skepticism of the 1990s, when the limits of the capabilities of our current computers were pointed out. The skepticism of the 1990s has now largely passed, and one of the major scientific and industrial challenges of the 21st century is the development of Artificial Intelligent Systems (AIS).
The development of AIS is aimed at the creation of new technologies that will provide solutions to problems in the fields of electronics and heavy industries, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transport, human health, public safety, national security and other fields.
Speaking at a conference in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton) remarked: “These highways, or more precisely these distributed intelligence networks, will allow us to share information, connect and communicate as a global community. From these connections, we will derive robust and sustainable economic progress, strong democracies, better solutions to global and local environmental challenges, improved health care and ultimately a greater sense of shared stewardship of our small planet.”
From a historical point of view, AIS appeared in the last century as a result of the evolution of man-machine systems, in which the functions of man and machine are interdependent for the operation of these systems. For example, a craftsman using a working lathe, a driver and his running car, workers and machines in a power plant all form man-machine systems. In a human-machine system, the human operator provides purpose, direction, and integration. The machine performs everything according to the given instructions and provides feedback.
In the process of evolution of man-machine systems, the role of man has diminished compared to the role of the machines he operates. To perform routine functions, machines were increasingly equipped with control subsystems, and the resulting man-machine systems were called “semi-automatic” systems. Gradually, many semi-automatic systems turned into automatic systems.
Thanks to computer systems, a fantastic change has taken place in many areas of technology over the past few decades. Previous machines had the role of carrying out tasks entrusted to them by human beings. Today, these machines are equipped with highly advanced programmable control systems and various types of sensory devices, allowing them to perform many human tasks, including creative problem solving. Meanwhile, engineers and scientists working on bionic technologies are getting closer to creating machines that can perform certain human functions for people with disabilities. Suddenly, the preconditions for the birth of artificial intelligence appeared.
Ray Kurzweil, in his very interesting book, The Singularity is Real, found an apt metaphor to describe the diffusion process of computer systems. He commented, “Advancing computer performance is like water slowly flooding the landscape. Half a century ago it began to drown the lowlands, driving out human calculators and clerks, but leaving most of us dry. Now the deluge has reached the foothills, and our outposts are planning to retreat. We feel safe on our peaks, but at the current rate, those too will be submerged within half a century.
This is also a fair statement regarding artificial intelligence (AI). In recent years, some AI programs and systems have succeeded in copying certain human brain functions and extending human cognitive and decision-making abilities. As a result, some existing machines can perform the knowledge-based functions of a human operator, but with better quality. The inventor of the Lisp programming language, John McCarthy, who also coined the term “artificial intelligence” in his proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth conference, defines AI as “the science and engineering of making machines intelligent”.
The term “intelligence” is derived from the Latin “intellectus” and is defined as “the mind, the powers of human thought”. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, “intelligence” has several meanings:
o the ability to learn or understand or cope with new or challenging situations: for example, the skillful use of reason or the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think in an abstract, measured way by objective criteria
o information about an enemy or potential enemy or area; and an agency responsible for obtaining this information
o mental acuity
o the basic eternal quality of the Divine Spirit (Christian Science)
o the ability to perform computer functions
It makes sense to analyze the definition, “the ability to perform a computer function”. On the face of it, an executable computer program, which provides a computing function (for example, calculating or writing text), has no intelligence. However, consider for a moment that “human or animal instinct” is the inherent disposition of a living organism towards a particular behavior. Based on our knowledge of computers, we can count “instinct” as a group of programs written on genetic material such as DNA
When a worker performs his tasks automatically, it means that he has in his brain the “programs” necessary for automatic actions. In part, these programs were created because of the special training he received to enable him to do his job. Congenital and acquired programs are all part of the human intellect, or intelligence. The same is true for an executable computer program. The program carries part of the intellect of its creators, translated into a language (code) that the machine understands.
Therefore, an executable computer program has some intelligence. Modern computer systems that can, for example, choose an optimal decision, or make a rational analysis of external influences for this decision, are intelligent systems. This is why AI is a powerful resource for finding solutions to a wide range of problems (including those that are not formalized) for which there are currently no known solutions.
Historically, the term “intelligence” was related to government organizations (agencies) devoted to collecting information for national security and defense purposes, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in America. Today, this term has a broader meaning, with practical applications to real systems and products. AI methods include elements found in cybernetics, computer science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, operations research, economics, control theory, and mathematics, among others. AI also connects and overlaps with areas such as robotics, control systems, planning, data mining and logistics.
Artificial intelligence systems are the realization of the science of artificial intelligence. In other words, AI could be called “Application of Artificial Intelligence”. The term “AI” is also used to describe an intelligence property of new machines or programs. Many artificial intelligence experts predict that by the middle of this century, intelligent machines will be all around us. Machines such as robots are already touching our lives. Automobiles, electronic devices and airplanes are assembled and tested using various robotic machines. The reality that computers have saved the world from the information explosion, while becoming affordable for students and other everyday users, is largely due to the use of intelligent machines. Virtually all of the machines around us are quickly becoming “intelligent”, thanks to smart apps. Revenues generated by the AI and robotics industries are now measured in billions of dollars per year.
With advanced computer systems used in traffic control or manufacturing control, it is reasonable to retain the human ability to solve bottleneck problems in real time. Human-machine systems can exist with different levels of automation (from manual to autonomous), and artificial intelligence systems can have different levels, from simple to complex.
Today, many applications of Artificial Intelligence are present in industry, business, medicine, automobile navigation, communication, military operations, space exploration, etc. The average person may have little or no knowledge of current AI applications, but encounter AI results many times a day. For example, the amazing functionality of everyday machines like a car, sewing machine, kitchen appliances and the Internet, or the quality of television pictures, movies and telephone communications are all the result of using artificial intelligence systems in many mainstream fields. high-tech products.
AIS will most certainly become commonplace in the very near future, as the widespread use of these systems will bring more prosperity and increased well-being to the entire population of our planet. Intelligent automation systems, various consulting programs and robots can and will do the work that we cannot or do not want to do. The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “Artificial Intelligence Around Us”, published by Bookstand Publishing
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